Responsabilit socitale et dveloppement durable

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Awareness

Towards an intelligent network for matching offer and demand: From the sharing economy to the global brain

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Publication date: January 2017
Source:Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 114

Author(s): Francis Heylighen

We analyze the role of the Global Brain in the sharing economy, by synthesizing the notion of distributed intelligence with Goertzel's concept of an offer network. An offer network is an architecture for a future economic system based on the matching of offers and demands without the intermediate of money. Intelligence requires a network of condition-action rules, where conditions represent challenges that elicit action in order to solve a problem or exploit an opportunity. In society, opportunities correspond to offers of goods or services, problems to demands. Tackling challenges means finding the best sequences of condition-action rules to connect all demands to the offers that can satisfy them. This can be achieved with the help of AI algorithms working on a public database of rules, demands and offers. Such a system would provide a universal medium for voluntary collaboration and economic exchange, efficiently coordinating the activities of all people on Earth. It would replace and subsume the patchwork of commercial and community-run sharing platforms presently running on the Internet. It can in principle resolve the traditional problems of the capitalist economy: poverty, inequality, externalities, poor sustainability and resilience, booms and busts, and the neglect of non-monetizable values.






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The mediating effect of ethical codes on the link between family firms and their social performance

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Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
Source:Long Range Planning

Author(s): Beatriz Cuadrado-Ballesteros, Lázaro Rodríguez-Ariza, Isabel-María García-Sánchez, Jennifer Martínez-Ferrero

This article brings together research on social performance, codes of ethics and family firms. Using a panel dataset composed of 547 internationally listed companies for the period 2002–2010, we test empirically whether the use of formal ethical codes could be a reason to explain the differences between social performance in family and non-family firms. We empirically show that family firms tend to present a lower social performance than non-family firms, and the use of formal ethical codes mediate such relationship.






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Environmental Management, Climate Change, CSR, and Governance in Clusters of Small Firms in Developing Countries: Toward an Integrated Analytical Framework

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One of the key debates in the literature on small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries has to do with the role that local industrial districts, or so-called industrial clusters, play in the promotion of CSR in those countries. While there is now an embryonic literature on this subject, we lack systematic, integrated analytical frameworks that can improve our understanding of the role that governance of clusters play in addressing CSR concerns in SMEs in developing countries. This article develops such a conceptual framework drawing on the literatures on cluster governance, CSR, SMEs, and environmental management (EM) as they relate to the developing countries. The authors argue that environmental improvements in SME clusters can be achieved through three basic types of cluster governance: legal enforcement, supply chain pressure, and voluntary engagement in CSR. The proposed framework is an attempt to show how each type of cluster governance is likely to induce different responses in cluster-based SMEs. These responses are related to stages of CSR in which SMEs engage, the barriers to EM they face, the types of EM practices they use, the climate change strategy types they use, and the kinds of benefits that accrue to SMEs from engagement in CSR. The authors put foward a framework that can be useful for both academics and practitioners as they seek to reflect on the interconnectedness of these themes from a research, policy, and practice perspective.


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SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries

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This article is the guest editors’ introduction to the special issue in Business & Society on "SMEs and CSR in Developing Countries." The special issue includes four original research articles by Hamann, Smith, Tashman, and Marshall; Allet; Egels-Zandén; and Puppim de Oliveira and Jabbour on various aspects of the relationship of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to corporate social responsibility (CSR) in developing countries.


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